Middle Ages in Belarus - a large layer of the history of our country, which was full of many political, cultural, social, military and other events. In this article we will try to talk about the most significant among them. Facts and dates that we recommend everyone to know.

The Middle Ages in Belarus are usually divided into the following stages:

1. Early Middle Ages: XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries

2. High Middle Ages: X—XIII centuries

3. Late Middle Ages: XIV-XV centuries

Early middle ages

The formation of the first political associations among the Eastern Slavs - principalities. In the territory Belarus Slavic peoples lived (unions of tribes) - Krivichi, Dregovichi, Radimichi, in the very south - the Drevlyans, Volynians, in the southwest - the Yotvingians.

862 - the first mention in the annals Polotsk.

2nd half of the XNUMXth century Formation of the ancient East Slavic state Kievan Rus.

High Middle Ages

Middle of the XNUMXth century Formation of the Principality of Polotsk. The first historically known prince was Rogvolod, founder of the Rogvolodovich dynasty.

974 year - first information about Vitebsk.

sights of Vitebsk

980 year - for the first time in the annals, the city of Turov and the Turov principality are mentioned.

988 year - the adoption of Christianity in Kievan Rus.

992 g. – Creation of a Christian diocese in Polotsk.

1003-1044 Principality in Polotsk Bryachislav Izyaslavych.

Polotsk Sophia Cathedral

1017 year - the first chronicle information about Brest.

1044-1066 years (according tooh version 1050 -1055) Construction St. Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk.

1044-1101 years - Reigning in Polotsk Vseslav Bryachislavich (Vseslav the Enchanter).

1054 year – The division of the Christian Church into Catholic and Orthodox.

1067 year – The first annalistic information about cities Minsk (Mensk, Menesk) and Orsha (Rsha).

3 March 1067 g. The battle on the Nemiga River between the troops of the princes of Kievan Rus and troops of the Polotsk prince Vseslav Brachislavovich.

1078 year. Unsuccessful campaign against Polotsk by squads of all southern principalities, Novgorodians and the Polovtsian horde under the leadership of Vladimir Monomakh.

1097 year. The congress of princes in the city of Lyubichi, at which the hereditary principle of ownership of estates was confirmed.

11 century. Creation of the first handwritten manuscripts known in Belarus Books "Turov Gospel" and "Suprasl Manuscript".

Around 1104 - May 23, 1173. The life and work of Euphrosyne of Polotsk (the secular name of Predslava) - the enlightener of the ancients lands of Belarus, Abbess of the Polotsk Monastery of the Holy Savior; canonized by the church as a saint of Belarus.

1128 year. - the first mention of the city Grodno.

About 11 - about 0. Life and activities Kirill Turovsky - Bishop of Turov, writer and preacher, an outstanding figure of the Belarusian and East Slavic cultures; ranked by the church as a saint of Belarus.

1202 year. The capture of the mouth of the Western Dvina by the German knights and the formation of the Order of the Sword in the Baltic States.

the image is for illustrative purposes

1229 year. Trade agreement "Smolensk trading truth" between Smolensk, Polotsk and Vitebsk principalities and Riga.

1237 year. Unification of the Order of the Sword with the Teutonic Order. Foundation of the Livonian Order.

1237-1241 year. The invasion of the Mongol-Tatars into the territory of Russia.

1253 year. Formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with its capital in Novogrudok, declaration of Mindovg by the Grand Duke.

Mindovga Castle Novogrudok

July 13, 1260. The defeat of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuanian crusaders near Lake Durbe.

1264-1267 years. The reign of Voyshelka, who annexed the Novgorod, Pinsk, Polotsk and Vitebsk lands to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1262 year. Treaty between the Grand Duke of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Mindovg and Alexander Nevsky on the joint struggle against the Livonian Order.

1267 year. The first mention of the city Mogilev.

1271-1288 years. erection Kamenets tower.

kamenec bashia

1298 year – Peace treaty between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the city of Riga.

Late Middle Ages

1307 year. The Principality of Polotsk, according to the agreement, is part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the rights of autonomy.

1320 year - The entry of the Vitebsk principality into the ON on the rights of autonomy.

1322 year – Conclusion of an alliance between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Principality of Mazovia.

1323 year - Town Vilnia declared the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1325 year – Conclusion of an agreement between the Grand Duke Gediminas and the Polish King Vladislav I Laketok.

1320-1330 years. Incorporation into the GDL Beresteiskaya and Turov-Pinsk lands.

1330-ies. built Lida Castle, который was part of the line of fortifications Novogrudok-Krevo-Medniki-Troki.

Lida castle photo

1331 year. The victory of the Lithuanian-Belarusian army led by Gediminas over the knights of the Teutonic Order on the Akmene River.

1338 year. Treaty of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Livonian Order and Riga on peace, borders, free navigation along the Western Dvina, on the jurisdiction of disputes between merchants of both sides, on the right of asylum, etc.

mid XNUMXth century. The central part of the GDL is divided into two parts: Vilna and Trok.

1355 year. Accession to ON Bryansk principality.

1358 year. Joining the ON Mstislav principality.

1362 year. The victory of the GDL troops led by Olgerd (reigning 1377-1392) over the united troops of the Golden Horde near the Blue Waters River. As a result, the lands of the basin of the Dnieper and the Southern Bug, Klevsk, Chernigov, Seversk, Volyn, Podolsk and Pereyaslav lands were annexed to the GDL, the Smolensk principality was subordinated.

1384 year. The coat of arms "Pahonia" became the coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Pursuit in the fortress of Mozyr

1384 year. Negotiations of Jogaila (reigning 1377-1392) with Dmitry Donskoy on the union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Moscow principality.

August 14, 1385. Union of Krevo - an agreement on the unification of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland. Marriage of Jogaila to Queen Jadwiga.

1386 year. Election of the Grand Duke of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Jogaila as King of Poland under the name of Vladimir II.

1391 year. Vitovt (reigning 1392-1430) entered into a political alliance with the Muscovite state.

August 5, 1392. The Ostrov agreement between Jogaila and Vytautas on the division of power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which guaranteed the independence of the latter.

1398 year. The conclusion of the Salina Treaty, according to which the Teutonic Order received part of Samoitija.

Late 14th century – Early 15th century. Construction in the city Grodno stone 5-tower Upper Castle (Old Castle).

castle old Grodno

January 18, March 11, 1401, the Union of Vilnius-Rodamia - the state and political agreement between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, according to which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania remained an independent state in alliance with Poland.

1408 year. Determination of the border between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Moscow state along the Ugra and Oka rivers.

1409-1411 years. "Great War" of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland against the Teutonic Order.

Battle of Grunwald date

1410, July 15 Battle of Grunwald - the defeat of the Teutonic Order by the combined troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

1411, February 1 – Torun peace between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, on the one hand, and the Teutonic Order, on the other.

1422 year. According to the Melnsky peace treaty with the Teutonic Order, Zhmud is attached to the ON.

1432 and 1434. Granting by Zhigimont Keistutovich of all-zemstvo privileges on equalizing the personal and property rights of Catholics and Protestants.

29 February 1468 year. The publication of the Code of Laws of Kazimir Jagedlochnik - the first collection of norms and laws of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the code of criminal and procedural law.

1470 (?) - 1538 (?) g. The life and work of Nikolai Gusovsky, a Belarusian poet-humanist and educator of the Renaissance, a representative of the New Latin Eastern European school, a figure in Slavic culture.

1492-1494 year. The war between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Moscow State resulted in the loss of the Vyazemsky Principality and other lands.

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