Among historical objects of Belarus has great popularity Nesvizh Castle of the Radziwills. Palace in Nesvizh listed UNESCO world heritagehas a rich and interesting history.
History and stages of construction
The place for the construction of the palace was not chosen by chance. There was a fortified wooden fortress here, on the foundation of which a stone castle was laid in the middle of the 16th century. The first stages of construction work were supervised by architect Jan Bernardoni, which is also known for other projects in Nesvizh. It was he who built farny church and participated in the work Benedictine monastery.
Palace of the Radziwills full of different architectural styles. It feels a mixture of techniques and techniques characteristic of different eras. The reason for this is quite simple and obvious - the castle was built in stages and often rebuilt. However, styles are considered to be the basis of the architecture of the complex. Renaissance и baroque.
Closer to the middle of the 18th century, the main building of the palace was rebuilt. Now the residence of the Radziwills is less and less like a feudal fortress.
If we talk about stages of development of the palace in Nesvizh, then the following should be noted:
- The original stone castle Radziwill Orphans. There is even a date of construction - 1583. At that time, the fortress had a quadrangular shape, about 170 × 120 meters in size.
- Palace at Alexander Ludwik Radziwill mid 17th century. Under him, the castle expanded, and many wooden buildings were replaced by stone ones.
- Nesvizh fortress. At Michael Kazimierz Radzivil the palace again becomes a protected castle, which was well fortified, had 28 cannons and a permanent garrison. Work to strengthen the fortress continued throughout the second half of the 17th century.
- Early 18th century. The first surrender and capture of the Radziwill Palace in Nesvizh by the enemy (Swedes) takes place. The military fortifications were destroyed, the ditch was partially filled in, and the cannons were sunk. The castle began to be restored only in the 20s, significantly changing the appearance of the fortifications.
- The new heyday of the Nesvizh castle is attributed to the time Mikhail Radziwill Rybonka. It was during his activity that the palace got its current appearance.
Palace in Nesvizh (late 18th century - to the present day)
In 1792, the Second Partition of the Commonwealth took place, as a result of which Nesvizh was ceded to the territory of the Russian Empire. But the year 1812 was approaching and the war with Napoleon, in which the young owner of the palace - Dominik Radziwillchose the wrong side. As a result, after the retreat of Napoleon, Russian troops took the treasures of the Radziwills out of Nesvizh.
The period of the decline of the Nesvizh castle and the frequent change of owners begins. For almost 50 years, the Radziwills will not set foot on these lands. They return to these parts only by the end of the 19th century. At that time, the state of the palace will be extremely deplorable and uninhabitable.
Since 1875, a large reconstruction of the estate began, which will take many years. Through the efforts Mary de Castellane-Radziwill many stolen relics and valuables were returned. We can safely say that the Nesvizh Palace has been sown again.
The advent of the 20th century did not bode well for the Radziwills. The Soviet authorities began to rob the palace and the city in 1919. The situation changed in 1921, when Nesvizh was part of Poland, and the palace was taken over by Albrecht Anthony Radziwill.
In 1939 the Second World War began. Soviet troops occupied the Nesvizh castle from the first days. The values and treasures of which were again redistributed. The Radziwills, however, managed to leave Nesvizh in 1940, before the start of the Second World War and the occupation by the Germans.
After the end of the war, the NKVD and KGB sanatorium “Nesvizh” was located within the walls of the palace. In the 60s, it was decided to install steam heating, for which the old stoves and fireplaces were dismantled. After the collapse of the USSR, Nesvizh Castle became a cultural landmark of Belarus, along with Mir Castle. At the end of the 20th century, restoration began, which was completed in 2012.
Nesvizh Castle - options for excursions from Minsk
One of the main attractions of Belarus - Radziwill Palace in Nesvizhworth a visit with the right guide. During the tour you will learn interesting facts and useful information. Below is a selection excursions from Minsk to Nesvizh castle:
Reviews about excursions:
The palace is easy to find, see the location on the map: